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 This section provides a list of various scientific articles on the issue of cerebral palsy in children and adolescents. The articles are classified by subjects as shown in the above diagram.

You can only view abstracts of the articles in this section. If you are interested in an article, you can order it by e-mailing Only members of the Cerebral Palsy Consortium may order articles.


A- Risks factors

B- Impacts

C- Actions on person

D- Actions on environment

E- Evaluations

A- Risks factors    Top

1.  Bartley J. Carroll JE. (2003). Stem cell therapy for cerebral palsy. Expert Opin Biol Ther, 3:541-549. (see abstract)

2.  Gisel E.G., Alphonce E. (1995). Classification of eating impairments based on eating efficiency in children with cerebral palsy. Dysphagia, 10:268-274. (see abstract)

3.  Nadeau L, Tessier R, Lefebvre F, Robaey P. (2004). Victimization: a newly recognized outcome of prematurity. Dev Med Child Neurol 46(8): 508-513. (see abstract)

4.  Oskoui M, Shevell MI. (2005). Profile of pediatric hemiparesis. J Child Neurol. Jun;20(6): 471-476. (see abstract)

5.  Roncesvalles MN, Woollacott MW, Burtner PA. (2002). Neural factors underlying reduced postural adaptability in children with cerebral palsy. Neuroreport, 13:2407-2410. (see abstract)

6.  Shevell MI, Majnemer A, Morin I. (2003). Etiology yield of cerebral palsy: a contemporary case series. Pediatr Neurol, May; 28(5): 352-359. (see abstract)

7.  Singhi P. (2001). The child with cerebral palsy--clinical considerations and management, Indian J Pediatri, 68: 531-537. (see abstract)

8.  Weindling AM (2000). Intervention after brain injury to reduce disability. Semin Neonatal, 5: 53-60. (see abstract)

9.  Weiss-Lambrou R, Tetreault S, Dudley J. (1989). The relationship between oral sensation and drooling in persons with cerebral palsy. Am J Occup Ther, Mar; 43(3): 155-161. (see abstract)

10.  Wood NS, Costeloe K, Gibson AT, Hennessy EM, Marlow N, Wilkinson AR. (2005). The EPICure study: associations and antecedents of neurological and developmental disability at 30 months of age following extremely preterm birth. Arch Dis Child Foetal Neonatal Ed., 90:F134-140. (see abstract)

11.  Yude C. & Goodman R. (1999). Peer problems of 9- to 11-year-old children with hemiplegia in mainstream schools. Can these be predicted? Dev Med Child Neurol, 41: 4-8. (see abstract)

B- Impacts       Top

92.  Balandin S, Berg N, Waller A. (2006). Assessing the loneliness of older people with cerebral palsy. Disability and Rehabilitation, 28(8): 469-479. (see abstract)  

12.  Brehaut JC, Kohen DE, Raina P, Walter SD, Russell DJ, Swinton M et al. (2004). The Health of Primary Caregivers of Children with Cerebral Palsy: How Does it Compare with That of Other Canadian Caregivers? Pediatrics, 114: 182-191. (see abstract)

13.  Cummins A, Piek JP, Murray JD (2005). Motor Coordination, empathy, and social behaviour in school-aged children. Developemental Medicine and Child Neurology, 47: 437-442. (see abstract)

89. Callahan M. (2001). Personal budgets: The future of funding? Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 16: 15-26. (see abstract)  

14.  Magill-Evans J, Darrah J, Pain K, Adkins R & Kratochvil M. (2001). Are families with adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy the same as other families? Dev Med Child Neurol., 43: 466-472. (see abstract)

90. Nadeau L, Tessier R. (2006). Social adjustment of children with cerebral palsy in mainstream classes: peer perception. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 48: 331-336. (see abstract

15.  Skinner R, Piek J. (2001). Psychosocial implications of poor motor coordination in children and adolescents. Human Movement Science, 20: 73-94. (see abstract)

16.  Tetreault S, Beaulieu J, Martin G, Bedard J, Laurion S. (2000). Utilisation du temps: Réalité des parents vivant avec un enfant ayant une incapacité motrice. Journal Canadien d'Ergothérapie, 67: 260-270. (see abstract)

17.  Yude C, Goodman R, McConachie H. (1998). Peer problems of children with hemiplegia in mainstream primary schools. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 39: 533-541. (see abstract)

C- Actions on person     Top

18.  Bar-Or O. (1996). Role of exercise in the assessment and management of neuromuscular disease in children. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Apr; 28(4): 421-427. (see abstract)

19.  Cooper J, Majnemer A, Rosenblatt B, Birnbaum R. (1995). The determination of sensory deficits in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. J Child Neurol, Jul; 10(4): 300-309. (see abstract)

20.  Damiano DL, Laws E, Carmines DV, Abel MF. (2006). Relationship of spasticity to knee angular velocity and motion during gait in cerebral palsy. Gait Posture, 23(1): 1-8. (see abstract)

21.  Dan B, Bouillot E, Bengoetxea A, Noel P, Kahn A, Cheron G. (1999). Adaptive motor strategy for squatting in spastic diplegia. Eur J Paediatr Neuro, 3: 159-165. (see abstract)

22.  Dickens WE, Smith MF. (2006). Validation of a visual gait assessment scale for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Gait Posture, 23(1): 78-82. (see abstract)

23.  Fucile S, Gisel EG, Lau C. (2005). The effect of an oral stimulation program on the maturation of sucking skills of preterm infants. Developemental Medicine and Child Neurology, 47: 158-162. (see abstract)

24.  Fucile S, Gisel EG, Lau C. (2002). Oral stimulation accelerates the transition from tube to oral feeding in pre-term infants. Journal of Pediatrics, 141: 230-236. (see abstract)

25.  Fucile S, Wright P, Chan I, Yee S, Langlais M-E, Gisel EG. (1998). Functional oral-motor skills: do they change with age? Dysphagia, 13: 195-201. (see abstract)

26.  Gisel EG, Benson J, Applegate-Ferrante T, Bosma JF. (1996). Oral-motor skills following sensorimotor therapy in two groups of moderately dysphagic children with cerebral palsy: Aspiration vs non-aspiration. Dysphagia, 11: 59-71. (see abstract)

27.  Gisel EG, Benson J, Applegate-Ferrante T, Bosma JF.  (1995). Effect of oral sensorimotor treatment on measures of growth eating efficiency and aspiration in the dysphagic child with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol, 37: 528-543. (see abstract)

28.  Gisel EG, Patrick J. (1988). Identification of children with cerebral palsy, unable to maintain a normal nutrition state. Lancet, 1: 281-286. (see abstract)

29.  Haberfellner H, Schwartz SA, Gisel EG. (2001). Feeding skills and growth after one year of intra-oral appliance therapy in moderately dysphagic children with cerebral palsy. Dysphagia, 16: 83-96. (see abstract)

30.  Jobin A, Levin MF. (2000). Regulation of stretch reflex threshold in elbow flexors in cildren with cerebral palsy: a new measure of spasticity. Dev Med Child Neurol. Aug; 42(8): 531-540. (see abstract)

31.  Lambert HC, Gisel EG, Groher ME, Wood-Dauphinée S. (2003). McGill Ingestive Skills Assessment (MISA): Development and first field test of an evaluation of functional ingestive skills of elderly persons. Dysphagia, 18: 101-113. (see abstract)

32.  MacKinnon J, Noh S, Laliberte D, Larivière J, Allan D. (1995). TherapeuticHorseback Riding: A review of the Literature. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 15(1): 1-15. (see abstract)

33.  MacKinnon J, Noh S, Larivière J, MacPhail A, Allan D, Laliberte D. (1995). A Study of Therapeutic Effects of Horseback Riding for Children with Cerebral Palsy.  Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 15(1): 17-34. (see abstract)

34.  McFadyen BJ, Malouin F, Dumas F. (2001). Anticipatory locomotor control for obstacle avoidance in mid-childhood aged children. Gait and Posture, Feb; 13(1): 7-16. (see abstract)

35.  Majnemer A, Limperopoulos C. (2002). Importance of outcome determination in pediatric rehabilitation. Dev Med Child Neurol, Nov; 44(11): 773-777. (see abstract)

36.  Malouin F, Richards CL, Doyon J, Desrosiers J, Belleville S. (2004). Training mobility tasks after stroke with combined mental and physical practice: a feasibility study. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, Jun; 18(2): 66-75. (see abstract)

37.  Maltais DB, Pierrynowski MR, Galea VA Bar-Or O. (2005). Physical activity level is associated with the O2 cost of walking in cerebral palsy. Med Sci Sports Exerc., Mar;37(3): 347-353. (see abstract)

38.  Maltais DB, Pierrynowski MR, Galea VA, Matsuzaka A, Bar-Or O. (2005). Habitual physical activity levels are associated with biomechanical walking economy in children with cerebral palsy. Am J Phys Med Rehabil., Jan;84(1): 36-45. (see abstract)

39.  Maltais DB, Pierrynowski MR, Galea VA, de Bruin H, Al-Mutawaly N, Bar-Or O. (2004). Minute-by-minute differences in co-activation during treadmill walking in cerebral palsy. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol., Dec;44(8): 477-487. (see abstract)

40.  Maltais DB, Wilk B, Unnithan V, Bar-Or O. (2004). Responses of children with cerebral palsy to treadmill walking exercise in the heat. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Oct;36(10): 1674-1681. (see abstract)

41.  Maltais DB, Unnithan V, Wilk B, Bar-Or O. (2004). Responses of children with cerebral palsy to arm-crank exercise in the heat. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Feb;36(2): 191-197. (see abstract)

42.  Maltais DB, Bar-Or O, Pierrynowski M, Galea V. (2003). Repeated treadmill walks affect physiologic responses in children with cerebral palsy. Med Sci Sports Exerc., Oct;35(10): 1653-1661. (see abstract)

43.  Maltais DB, Bar-Or O, Galea V, Pierrynowski M. (2001). Use of orthoses lowers the O(2) cost of walking in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Med Sci Sports Exerc., Feb;33(2): 320-325. (see abstract)

44.  Park ES, Park CI, Lee HJ, Cho YS. (2001). The effect of electrical stimulation on the trunk control in young children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. Korean Med Sci., 16: 347-350. (see abstract)

45.  Parker DF, Carriere L, Hebestreit H, Salsberg A, Bar-Or O. (1993). Muscle performance and gross motor function of children with spastic cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol., Jan;35(1): 17-23. (see abstract)

91. Regroupement des intervenants en déficience motrice cérébrale du Québec. (2003). Algorithme de la diplégie spastique de niveau III. (see abstract

46.  Saraph V, Zwick EB, Steinwender G, Auner C, Schneider F, Linhart W. (2006). Leg lengthning as part of gait improvement surgery in cerebral palsy: an evaluation using gait analysis. Gait Posture, 23(1): 83-90. (see abstract)

47.  Schneiberg S, Sveistrup H, McFadyen B, McKinley P, Levin MF. (2002). The development of coordination for reach-to-grasp movements in children. Exp Brain Res., Sep;146(2): 142-154. (see abstract)

48.  Sveistrup H, McComas J, Thornton M, Marshall S, Finestone H, McCormick A, Babulic K, Mayhew A. (2003). Experimental studies of virtual reality-delivered compared to conventional exercise programs for rehabilitation. Cyberpsychol Behav., Jun; 6(3): 245-249. (see abstract)

49.  Trahan J, Malouin F. (2002). Intermittent intensive physiotherapy in children with cerebral palsy: a pilot study. Dev Med Child Neurol., Apr; 44(4): 233-239. (see abstract)

50.  Unnithan VB, Dowling JJ, Frost G, Bar-Or O. (1999). Role of mechanical power estimates in the O2 cost of walking in children with cerebral palsy. Med Sci Sports Exerc., Dec; 31(12): 1703-1708. (see abstract)

51.  Unnithan VB, Dowling JJ, Frost G, Bar-Or O. (1996). Role of cocontraction in the O2 cost of walking in children with cerebral palsy. Med Sci Sports Exerc., Dec; 28(12): 1498-1504. (see abstract)

52.  Van den Berg-Emons RJ, Van Baak MA, Speth L, Saris WH. (1998). Physical training of school children with spastic cerebral palsy: effects on daily activity, fat mass and fitness. Int J Rehabil Res., Jun; 21(2): 179-194. (see abstract)

53.  Woollacott MH, Burtner P, Jensen J, Jasiewicz J, Roncesvalles N, Sveistrup H. (1998). Development of Postural Responses During Standing in Healthy Children and Children with Spastic Diplegia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 22(4): 583-589. (see abstract)

D- Actions on environment       Top

54.  Chen HF & Cohn ES. (2003). Social participation for children with developmental coordination disorder: conceptual, evaluation and intervention considerations. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr., 23: 61-78. (see abstract)

55-a.  Dallas E, Stevenson J, McGurk H. (1993). Cerebral-palsied Children's Interactions with siblings-I. Influence of severity of disability, age and birth order. J Child Psycholo Psychiatry, 34(5): 621-647. (see abstract)

55-b.  Dallas E, Stevenson J, McGurk H. (1993). Cerebral-palsied Children's Interactions with siblings-II. Interactional Structure. J Child Psycholo Psychiatry, 34(5): 649-671. (see abstract)

56.  Gouvernement du Québec. L'intégration des enfants handicapés dans les services de garde. Recension et synthèse des écrits. 107 pages. 2004. Québec, Emploi, Solidarité sociale et famille. (see abstract)

57.  King G, Law M, King S, Rosenbaum P, Kertoy MK, Young NL. (2003). A conceptual model of the factors affecting the recreation and leisure participation of children with disabilities. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr., 23(1): 63-90. (see abstract)

58.  Law M, King G, Rosenbaum P, Kertoy M, King S, Young N et al. (2005). Final Report to Families and Community Partners on the Participate Study Findings Hamilton: CanChild Centre for Childhood Disability Research. (see the final report)

59.  Lepage C, Noreau L, Bernard P-M, Fougeyrollas P. (1998). Profile of handicap situations in children with cerebral palsy. Scand J Rehab Med., 30: 263-272. (see abstract)

60.  Luc-Pupat E, Terrat H. Lire-écrire chez quatre enfants infirmes moteurs cérébraux présentant une dyspraxie visuo-spatiale. Deux ans de collaboration entre une classe d'intégration scolaire pour enfants handicapés moteurs et un service de consultation pédiatrique. A. N. A. E., 1998; (49-50): 175-179. (see abstract)

61.  McDougall J, King G, Malloy-Miller T, Gritzan J, Tucker M, Evans J. (1999). A checklist to Determine the Methods of Intervention Used in School-Based Therapy: Development and Pilot Testing. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr., 19(2): 53-76. (see abstract)

62.  Mulderij KJ. (1997). Peer relations and friendship in physically disabled children. Child: Care, Health and Development, 23(5): 379-389. (see abstract)

63.  Mulvihill BA, Cotton JN, Gyaben SL. (2004). Best practices for inclusive child and adolescent out-of-school care: a review of the literature. Fam Community Health., 27(1): 52-64. (see abstract)

64.  Robitaille L, Tétreault S, Beaupré P, Boulé F, Lachance N. (2000). Adolescents multihandicapés et préparation à l'emploi: exemple d'un projet de partenariat en milieu scolaire. Différences Le Magazine de l'IRDPQ, 2(1): 33-36. (see introduction)

65.  Robitaille L, Guérard L, Thivierge S, Tétreault S. (1999). Loisirs des enfants ayant une incapacité motrice: Perception des parents. Canadian Journal of Rehabilitation, 12(4): 223-228. (see abstract)

66.  Scholl K, Smith J, Davison A. (2005). Agency Readiness to Provide Inclusive Recreation and After-School Services for Children with Disabilities. Therapeutic Recreation Jounal, 39(1): 47-62 (see abstract)

67.  Scholl K, McAvoy L, Rynders J, Smith J. (2003). The influence of an Inclusive Outdoor Recreation Experience on Families that have a Child with a Disability. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 37(1): 38-57. (see abstract)

68.  Simeonsson RJ et al. (2001). Students with disabilities: a national survey of participation in school activities. Disability and rehabilitation, 23(2):49-63. (see abstract)

88.  Tétreault S, Beaupré P, Giroux M, Guérard L. (2002). Conditions gagnantes pour l'inclusion en classe régulière d'enfants d'âge préscolaire ayant des besoins spéciaux. AQEP - Vivre le primaire, Vol. 15, no. 2, p.24-17. (see abstract)

69.  Thomas A, Rosenberg A. (2003). Promoting Community Recreation and Leisure. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 232-246. (see abstract)

70.  Van den Berg-Emons HJ, Saris WH, de Barbenson DC, Westerterp KR, Huson A, Van Baak MA. (1995). Daily physical activity of schoolchildren with spastic dipledia and of healthy control subjects. J Pediatr., Oct;127(4): 578-584. (see abstract)

71.  Weber P, Noreau L, Fougeyrollas P. (2004). L'évaluation de la participation sociale et de la situation de handicap en travail social. Handicap. Revue de sciences humaines et sociales, no.103: 1-23. (see abstract)

E- Evaluations       Top

95.  Bureau de la condition des personnes handicapées. Développement social du Canada. (2004). Attitudes des Canadiennes et des Canadiens à l'égard de la condition des personnes handicapées - Enquête de référence 2004. Rapport final. (see the document in pdf

72.  Cans C, Surman G, McManus V, Coghlan D, Hensey O, Johnson A. (2004). Cerebral Palsy Registries. Seminars in pediatric Neurology, Mar;11(1): 18-23 (see abstract)

73.  Darrah J, Magil-Evans J, Adkins R. (2002). How well are we doing? Families of adolescents or young adults with cerebral palsy share their perceptions of service delivery. Disabil Rehabil., 24: 542-549. (see abstract)

74.  Deret A. (2003). Évaluation de projets pilotes d'action concertée pour faciliter l'intégration des enfants handicapés dans les services de garde. Montréal, Institut national de la recherche scientifique, 115 pages. (see the report)

75.  Dodd KJ, Taylor NF, Damiano DL. (2002). A systematic review of the effectiveness of strength-training programs for people with cerebral palsy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil., Aug;83(8): 347-353. (see abstract)

76.  Gisel EG. (1994). Oral-motor skills following sensorimotor intervention on the moderately eating impaired child with cerebral palsy. Dysphagia, 9: 180-191. (see abstract)

93.  Gouvernement du Canada. (2005). Vers l'intégration des personnes handicapées - Avec une section spéciale au sujet des aînés. (see document in pdf

94.  Gouvernement du Canada. (2004). Vers l'intégration des personnes handicapées - Un rapport du gouvernement du Canada. (see document in pdf)  

77.  King G, McDougall J, Tucker M, Gritzan J, Malloy-Miller T, Alambets P et al. (1999). An evaluation of Functional, School-Based Therapy Services for Children with Special Needs. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr., 19(2): 5-29 (see abstract)

78.  King S, Teplicky R, King G, Rosenbaum P. (2004). Family-Centered Service for Children With Cerebral Palsy and Their Families: A Review of the Literature. Seminars in pediatric Neurology, Mar;11(1): 78-86. (see abstract)

79.  Magill-Evans J, Darrah J, Adkins R. (2003). Youths with Cerebral Palsy and Their Satisfaction with Recreational Services: Implications for Inclusion. Leisure / Loisir, 28: 71-86. (see abstract)

80.  Majnemer A, Mazer B. (2004). New Directions in the Outcome Evaluation of Children with Cerebral Palsy. Seminars in pediatric Neurology, Mar;11(1): 11-17. (see abstract)

81.  Palisano RJ, Snider LM, Orlin MN. (2004). Recent Advances in Physical and Occupational Therapy for Children with Cerebral Palsy.Seminars in pediatric Neurology, Mar;11(1): 66-77. (see abstract)

82.  Rosenbaum P, Stewart D. (2004). The World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: A Model to Guide Clinical Thinking, Practice and Research in the Field of Cerebral Palsy. Seminars in pediatric Neurology, Mar;11(1): 5-10. (see abstract)

83.  Russman BS, Ashwal S. (2004). Evaluation of the Child with Cerebral Palsy. Seminars in pediatric Neurology, Mar;11(1): 47-57. (see abstract)

84.  Shevell MI. (2004). The "Bermuda Triangle" of Neonatal Neurology: Cerebral Palsy, Neonatal Encephalopathy, and Intrapartum Asphyxia.Seminars in pediatric Neurology, Mar;11(1): 24-30. (see abstract)

85.  Sveistrup H. (2004). Motor rehabilitation using virtual reality. Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation, Dec 10;1(1): 10. (see abstract)

86.  Tetreault S, Parrot A, Trahan J. (2003). Home activity programs in families with children presenting with global developmental delays: evaluation and parental perceptions. Int J Rehabil Res., 26(3): 165-173. (see abstract)

87.  Tilton AH. (2003). Approach to the rehabilitation of spasticity and neuromuscular disorders in children. Neurol Clin., 21: 853-881. (see abstract)


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